Certainly, plant layout is a concept related to the distribution of machines, departments, work stations, storage areas, corridors and common spaces within a proposed or existing prductive installation. The fundamental purpose of the distribution in plant is to organize these elements in a way that ensures the flow of work flow, materials, people and information through the production system.
Objectives of the plant layout
- Reduction of risks of occupational diseases and accidents at work
With attention to the safety factor, factors like the design and a vital perspective for the distribution will help.
- Improves worker satisfaction
The small problems that affect the workers, the sun in front, the shadows in the workplace, are factors that, when solved, increase the moral of the collaborator by feeling that the management cares about them.
- Increase in productivity
Surely, some factors to increase productivity are the minimization of moves, the increase of the productivity of the collaborator, etc.
- Delays decrease
By balancing operations, you avoid having to wait for materials, collaborators and machines. It must be a fundamental principle, that the production units do not touch the ground.
- Space optimization
Minimizing long displacement distances and optimally distributing corridors, warehouses, equipment and collaborators, you can have more space.
- Reduction of material in process
By decreasing distances and generating logical sequences of production through distribution, the material remains less time in the process.
Types of plant distribution
First thing to remember is that there are three basic forms of distribution in the plant: those oriented to the product and associated with continuous or repetitive configurations, those oriented to the process and associated with batch configurations, and the distributions by fixed position, corresponding to the configurations per project.
Distribution by product
Also called distribution of Flow Workshop. Specifically, here is where the equipment or work processes are arranged according to the progressive steps necessary for the manufacture of a product. The distribution in plant by product is the one adopted when the production is organized, either continuously, or repetitively, being the case more typical of the assembly lines. For example: Manufacture of small electrical appliances: toasters, irons, blenders; Major appliances: washing machines, refrigerators, stoves; Electronic equipment: computers, compact disc equipment; and Automobiles.
Distribution by process
Also called Distribution of Work Workshop or Distribution by Function. In this case, staff and teams that perform same general function are grouped in the same area according to the sequence of operations established. Such as: hospitals: pediatrics, maternity, intensive care.
Distribution by fixed position.
The product, for reasons of size or weight, remains in one place, while the manufacturing equipment moves to where the product is.
Factors that affect plant distribution
- Materials (raw materials, products in progress, finished products). Including variety, quantity, necessary operations, sequences, etc.
- Movements (of people and materials).
- Wait (temporary stores, permanent, waiting rooms).
- Services (maintenance, inspection, control, programming, etc.)
- Building (elements and interior and exterior peculiarities thereof, existing facilities, etc).
- Versatility, flexibility, expansion.